Monthly Archives: August 2016

A Brief History of Money

I had the opportunity to make short presentation on the history of money this last week. Below is the main slide from the presentation as well as an outline of the information provided. I did not have enough time to practice as much as I would like, but overall the presentation went pretty well.

What is money? [Slide]

What is Money?

  • Medium of exchange
  • Unit of measurement
  • Store of value

A Brief History of Money:

  • Bartering
    1. Direct trade of goods and services
    2. Skins, salt, weapons became common exchange units
  • Weapons and cutlery as a unit of exchange
    1. China 1100 BCE
    2. Miniatures representing real items
      1. Cutting edges replaced with circles
      2. Simplified to first pseudo-coins
  • First coins minted in Lydia (western turkey) in 600 BCE
    1. Electrum (natural alloy of silver and gold)
    2. Trite was stamped with picture of a lion
      1. Reports of value vary may have been as high 10 sheep/11 goats or as low as three jars of wine
  • About that same time China began printing the first notes (paper money)
    1. Inscribed with “All counterfeiters will be decapitated”
  • Precious metals formed the basis of money
    1. Durable, limited supply, portable, high replacement cost, and easily divisible
    2. Paper notes could be traded in for a set amount of metal (gold-standard)
  • Over time banks develop – loans, credit, interest
  • 1600 CE – British empire banking system
    1. Distances and lack of available cash made checking, IOUs necessary.
    2. Currency markets developed between countries
  • 20th century – Credit cards, debit cards, and fiat money
    1. Credit cards evolve from dinner cards
    2. Fiat money
      1. Gold standard ended by Nixon in 1971
      2. Money’s worth based on faith in the government to honor it
    3. Debit cards make money electronic
  • 21st century – mobile payments, virtual currency

Sources and References:

Asmundson, Irene., & Oner, Ceyda. (2012). Back to Basics-What Is Money? Without it, modern economies could not function. Finance and Development49(3), 52. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2012/09/basics.htm

Beattie, Andrew. (2010). The history of money: From barter to banknotes. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/07/roots_of_money.asp

Davies, Glyn. (2010). History of money. University of Wales Press.

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Judges 16 – Care and Feeding Instructions For a Leader

One day Samson went to Gaza, where he saw a prostitute. He went in to spend the night with her. The people of Gaza were told, “Samson is here!” So they surrounded the place and lay in wait for him all night at the city gate. They made no move during the night, saying, “At dawn we’ll kill him.” But Samson lay there only until the middle of the night. Then he got up and took hold of the doors of the city gate, together with the two posts, and tore them loose, bar and all. He lifted them to his shoulders and carried them to the top of the hill that faces Hebron. – Judge 16:1-3

Der geblendete Simson by Lovis Corinth (1912)

25 While they were in high spirits, they shouted, “Bring out Samson to entertain us.” So they called Samson out of the prison, and he performed for them. When they stood him among the pillars, 26 Samson said to the servant who held his hand, “Put me where I can feel the pillars that support the temple, so that I may lean against them.” 27 Now the temple was crowded with men and women; all the rulers of the Philistines were there, and on the roof were about three thousand men and women watching Samson perform. 28 Then Samson prayed to the Lord, “Sovereign Lord, remember me. Please, God, strengthen me just once more, and let me with one blow get revenge on the Philistines for my two eyes.” 29 Then Samson reached toward the two central pillars on which the temple stood. Bracing himself against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other, 30 Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines!” Then he pushed with all his might, and down came the temple on the rulers and all the people in it. Thus he killed many more when he died than while he lived. – Judges 16:25-30

***

As a kid in Sunday School they probably taught about Samson once a year. It was always a very sanitized version of the story, and I do not recall the teacher ever reading any of it out of the Bible. The lesson always revolved around Samson losing his powers when his hair was cut and then getting his powers back when he asked God. I look back in horror at the teacher who taught that Samson was analogous to Jesus in that he sacrificed himself, and the teacher that taught Samson got his powers back because the Philistines allowed time for his hair to grow back.

Samson was a horrible person who did very bad things, and that is how we should teach him. He was faithless, deceptive, arrogant, self-centered, and hot-headed (to name a few traits).

Many people are called into leadership positions. Frequently leaders use their power and authority to work in the best interest of those around them. However, there will always be leaders, like Samson, who use their position to visit prostitutes (literally or metaphorically), pick fights, and bring about destruction. These leaders may be moving the group in a desired direction; but their failures will ultimately cause harm to the group

As Christians we need to be careful in the selection and maintenance of our leaders.

  1. Follow God’s Leading – Do not pick the person you think should be your leader. Pick the person God is calling to be your leader. God knows more than you know and God knows more than I know. I have seen destructive individuals placed into leadership because people thought they knew what kind of leader they needed when in fact God was calling someone else. If you find yourself playing politics in church, then you are not following God’s leading.
  2. Pray – Pray for your leaders before you know who they are. Pray for your prospective leaders when deciding who should lead. Pray for your leaders while they are leading. Pray for your leaders after they are gone. Your relationship with your leaders does not begin when they show up and does not end when they leave. It is eternal in both directions.
  3. Require Accountability – Many leaders do not like being accountable. Some leaders will even establish policies which give the appearance of holding them accountable, but which truly exist to avoid accountability. Require that your leaders be accountable to someone. A leader either needs to choose a suitable accountability partner or be assigned one.
  4. Do Not Allow Destructive Patterns – One mistake is a data point, two mistakes is a pattern. If a leader repeats the same mistake, they should be removed from leadership.

Samson could have been a great leader. He had the abilities and gifts to be the greatest Judge the Israelites had ever known. But Samson squandered his gifts and abilities. He engaged in sinful behaviors which brought shame and destruction on Israel. Samson had no accountability and he knew it. Samson was a horrible leader and those in leadership today should learn from his example so we do not repeat it.

Application:

  • Work with the leaders in your church to establish a leadership training plan.
  • Write down all of the leaders from your past and present; then pray for each of them.
  • Write down leadership positions in your life and church; pray for the future leaders in those positions.
  • Write down the potential future leaders in your life. Do one thing this week to encourage them.

Queries:

  • Do I regularly pray for my past, present, and future leaders?
  • Do your leaders have an adequate system of accountability?
  • Have your leaders established destructive patterns?
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Judges 15 – Sometimes God uses obnoxious people

on the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam

When he came to Lehi, the Philistines shouted as they met him. And the Spirit of the LORD came upon him mightily so that the ropes that were on his arms were as flax that is burned with fire, and his bonds dropped from his hands. 15 He found a fresh jawbone of a donkey, so he reached out and took it and killed a thousand men with it. 16 Then Samson said, “With the jawbone of a donkey, Heaps upon heaps, With the jawbone of a donkey I have killed a thousand men.” 17 When he had finished speaking, he threw the jawbone from his hand; and he named that place Ramath-lehi. 18 Then he became very thirsty, and he called to the LORD and said, “You have given this great deliverance by the hand of Your servant, and now shall I die of thirst and fall into the hands of the uncircumcised?” 19 But God split the hollow place that is in Lehi so that water came out of it. When he drank, his strength returned and he revived. Therefore he named it En-hakkore, which is in Lehi to this day. – Judges 15:14-19

***

As a kid I remember the story of Sampson. As it was told to me, Sampson was a man of God who defended Israel from the Philistines who wanted to destroy Israel. His wicked wife tricked him into giving away the secret of his power, his long hair, and his enemies cut his hair and robbed him of his power. Samson then trusted in God one last time and sacrificed himself in order to destroy Israel’s enemies.

The only problem with this version of the story is that it is totally wrong. Samson was a petty, deceptive, manipulative, capricious, violent, intransigent, vindictive, foolish, womanizer.

From before he was born, Samson was set aside to be someone special. The faith of his mother caused him to be blessed by God, and set him in place to be a Judge for Israel. Over and over again God gave Samson opportunities which he squandered. Even when Samson appears to have been faithful to God’s calling he acts like a child. In the above passage Samson becomes angry with God, because after he has slaughtered “a thousand men” he is thirsty and God has not immediately provided a beverage.

No complaining! by Jean Browman

Have you met people like that in your life? People who continuously gripe and complain to God about not having something, and then it seems that God goes ahead and gives it to them anyway.

Based upon the scripture as a whole, I would say that Samson’s attitude in this passage is not to be normative; in general we should not act like Samson. However, sometimes God uses obnoxious people.

I encourage you to live a life of peace, simplicity, integrity, and humility; because, maybe then your last act won’t be to pull a house down on you and your enemies. Of course, there are no guarantees.

Application:

  • Go out of your way to bless an obnoxious person this week.
  • Write down the last time you childishly complained to God about not meeting your needs.
  • Set the goal for the next week of having a fantastic attitude; no matter what happens.

Queries:

  • Do others perceive you as obnoxious?
  • Who are the obnoxious people in your life that God seems to use and bless?
  • Why might it be better to live a life of peace, simplicity, integrity, and humility rather than living as a petty, deceptive, manipulative, capricious, violent, intransigent, vindictive, foolish, womanizer?
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Judges 14 – Samson was a bad, bad man

Samson’s Fight with the Lion – Lucas Cranach the Elder (16th c.)

Then Samson went down to Timnah with his father and mother, and came as far as the vineyards of Timnah; and behold, a young lion came roaring toward him. 6 The Spirit of the LORD came upon him mightily, so that he tore him as one tears a young goat though he had nothing in his hand; but he did not tell his father or mother what he had done. 7 So he went down and talked to the woman; and she looked good to Samson. 8 When he returned later to take her, he turned aside to look at the carcass of the lion; and behold, a swarm of bees and honey were in the body of the lion. 9 So he scraped the honey into his hands and went on, eating as he went. When he came to his father and mother, he gave some to them and they ate it; but he did not tell them that he had scraped the honey out of the body of the lion.

10 Then his father went down to the woman; and Samson made a feast there, for the young men customarily did this. 11 When they saw him, they brought thirty companions to be with him. 12 Then Samson said to them, “Let me now propound a riddle to you; if you will indeed tell it to me within the seven days of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty linen wraps and thirty changes of clothes. 13 “But if you are unable to tell me, then you shall give me thirty linen wraps and thirty changes of clothes.” And they said to him, “Propound your riddle, that we may hear it.” 14 So he said to them, “Out of the eater came something to eat, And out of the strong came something sweet.” But they could not tell the riddle in three days.

15 Then it came about on the fourth day that they said to Samson’s wife, “Entice your husband, so that he will tell us the riddle, or we will burn you and your father’s house with fire. Have you invited us to impoverish us? Is this not so?” 16 Samson’s wife wept before him and said, “You only hate me, and you do not love me; you have propounded a riddle to the sons of my people, and have not told it to me.” And he said to her, “Behold, I have not told it to my father or mother; so should I tell you?” 17 However she wept before him seven days while their feast lasted. And on the seventh day he told her because she pressed him so hard. She then told the riddle to the sons of her people. 18 So the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, “What is sweeter than honey? And what is stronger than a lion?” And he said to them, “If you had not plowed with my heifer, You would not have found out my riddle.” 19 Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon him mightily, and he went down to Ashkelon and killed thirty of them and took their spoil and gave the changes of clothes to those who told the riddle. And his anger burned, and he went up to his father’s house. – Judges 14:5-19

***

Samson Slaying a Philistine – Giambologna (1562)

The book of Judges is the story of the downward spiral in the quality, morality, and ability of the leaders of Israel. The institute of Judge was established as an ad hoc chieftain who could lead God’s people when they face times of conflict or difficulty. A Judge would be called up by God to lead the people into war, into reformation, into repentance, and into reconstruction.

Samson was the final Judge. Before he was born he was set apart and dedicated to God. In turn, God blessed Samson with incredible strength and ability. Unfortunately, Samson was lacking in other leadership qualities.

There are two repeated phrases in this passage which bear mentioning. The first is “the Spirit of the Lord came upon him mightily”, and the second is “he did not tell”.

“The Spirit of the Lord came upon him mightily” is first used when Samson is attached by the lion. My reading of this passage is not that Samson was suddenly energized by God, but rather that Samson used his strength and power (which he had received as a blessing from God based upon his mother’s faith) to defend himself. The phrase is used again at the end of the passage when Samson goes to Ashkelon to kill thirty people and fulfill his wager. In this case Samson is using God’s gifts to act out petty vengeance to fulfill a childish wager.

The phrase “he did not tell” is first after killing the lion. The author makes a specific point that Samson did not tell his father or mother what he had done. My reading would be that Samson was too engrossed in pursuing the Philistine woman as his bride. The second time Samson “did not tell” is when he revisits the lion carcass and eats honey found in it, sharing this honey with his parents. It may not need to be said, but eating honey from a lion’s corpse would be considered unclean (both literally and theologically). This is Samson’s second act of uncleanliness in just this passage. The first is marrying a Philistine woman, as God has instructed the Israelites not to intermarry with the neighboring clans.

by Heath Brandon

In summary, Samson pursues the sin of marrying a Philistine. He then sins by eating unclean honey and compounds his sin by sharing it with his unknowing parents causing them to sin. Finally, Samson makes fun of his sin with his riddle-wager and uses his God-given powers to cover his foolish sin.

It is far too easy to follow the example of Samson. When we see something we want, it is easier to begin pursuing that thing, rather than evaluating if it is what God wants. When we feel a need, such as hunger, it is easier to grab the nearest snack, rather than considering if this is what God wants us to put into our bodies. When we are with our friends and families we often try to push them toward the sins we are committing; it is easier to sin when we are all sinning together. When we are caught in sin it is easier to mock or flaunt the sin rather than deal with the true consequences. Finally, when we are called to pay for our sin, it is easier to make someone else suffer the consequences. Do not follow the example of Samson.

All of us have God given talents, abilities, and characteristics which we can use to either build up the kingdom of God or to pursue our own selfish (sometimes foolish) pursuits. We are called by God to make the areas in which we are blessed a blessing to others. You have some exceptional talent, ability, or characteristic; please do not follow the example of Samson; rather, use your blessings to bless others and honor God.

Application:

  • Write down your top three talents, abilities or characteristics (e.g. intelligence, beauty, charisma, needlepoint).
  • Make a plan of how you can use one of your talents, abilities, or characteristics to honor God.
  • Think of the last time you “did not tell”. Go fix that.

Queries:

  • How can I use my talents, abilities, and characteristics to bring honor to God?
  • What sin am I regularly pursuing? How can I stop?
  • How has my sin caused harm to others? How do I need to seek forgiveness from?
  • When caught in sin, do I make jokes or flaunt my behavior?
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Judges 13 – We all faith differently

Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 14: Manoah and his wife give a sacrifice.

So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering and offered it on the rock to the LORD, and He performed wonders while Manoah and his wife looked on. 20 For it came about when the flame went up from the altar toward heaven, that the angel of the LORD ascended in the flame of the altar. When Manoah and his wife saw this, they fell on their faces to the ground. 21 Now the angel of the LORD did not appear to Manoah or his wife again. Then Manoah knew that he was the angel of the LORD. 22 So Manoah said to his wife, “We will surely die, for we have seen God.” 23 But his wife said to him, “If the LORD had desired to kill us, He would not have accepted a burnt offering and a grain offering from our hands, nor would He have shown us all these things, nor would He have let us hear things like this at this time.” 24 Then the woman gave birth to a son and named him Samson; and the child grew up and the LORD blessed him. – Judges 13:19-24 (NASB)

***

I am a big fan of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral (WQ). In a nut shell, the WQ says that our faith is formed by a combination of four elements: scripture, tradition, reason, and experience (including experiences of the Holy Spirit). When I have introduced Christians to the concept of the WQ they tend to bristle at the thought of one of those elements being the foundation of their faith; but it is a different element for everyone. Some want to reject tradition, saying that instead we should abandon all tradition and go back to the first century church. Others want to reject experience, saying that our experience is fallible and should not be foundational to our faith. I, personally, have the least comfort with including reason as I have seen damaging theologies emerge from trying to “figure out” God. However, in the end, I believe all four elements are foundational to faith and I believe that our faith is formed be the interplay of all four elements.

In the sight of God by Leonardo

The story of Manoah and his wife is a wonderful example of the interplay between the different elements of the WQ. Manoah speaks from scripture a tradition. He knows that Exodus 33:20 taught that those who see God would die. He also knew of the cultural traditions around him that spoke of the dangers of interacting with a deity. The gods of the Ancient Near-East tended to be violent and capricious; a dangerous combination for anyone mortal who may encounter a deity.

Meanwhile, Manoah’s wife, unnamed in the Bible but traditionally known as Hazelelponi (“shade coming upon me”), speaks from reason and experience. He husbands yells, “we will surely die”, and she examines the situation and makes the reasonable deduction that if God had wanted to kill them, God would have done it already. Hazelelponi also has the advantage of past experience; the Angel of the Lord had first appeared to Hazelelponi alone (v3 ff). Hazelelponi had previous experience with the voice of God and so was more easily able to put this new experience into context.

Brittle Heart by Doran

Taking some time to evaluate our beliefs in the light of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral can help us to have a more fully formed faith. It can help us to overcome obstacles to our faith, and assist us as we struggle with doubts and concerns. An attitude of “The Bible says it, I believe it, that settles it” can lead to a brittle faith. I believe that taking the time to understand faith within the context of reason, personal experiences, and the broader faith tradition is hard, but builds a more robust faith.

Application:

  • Write down the part of the quadrilateral that you struggle with the most (scripture, tradition, reason, or experience). Why is this part of the quadrilateral problematic for you?
  • Write out why others might struggle with the other three aspects of the quadrilateral.
  • This week, when you encounter someone with a different belief, consider what scriptures, traditions, experiences, or logical reasoning would cause that person to believe in that way.

Queries:

  • How has scripture influenced my faith?
  • How has my faith tradition influenced my faith?
  • How has reason influenced my faith?
  • How have my experiences influenced my faith?
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